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Monthly Archives: February 2013

LET’S STICK TO REALITY: TAGLE VIS-A-VIS VATICAN POLITICS

“Come now, let’s kill him.” GENESIS 37:20

BY ALEX P. VIDAL

Who would not want a Filipino pope?
There is no doubt that Luis Cardinal Tagle, 55, is qualified to become the next pope. He is intelligent and speaks different languages; Cardinal Tagle is educated in a wide variety of fields and has the charisma and moral turpitude that is like Caesar’s wife–beyond doubt. He is a dark horse, asserted his drum beaters.
But let’s be realistic. The politics that have crept the Vatican for centuries showed that no cardinal from the third world has occupied the Roman Catholic hierarchy’s most influential and powerful post. For a cardinal from a third world country to be chosen as successor of Pope Benedict XVI is like wishing for the Halley’s comet.

EXCITED

It’s alright for all Filipinos to be excited about the global news of Cardinal Tagle’s possible ascension to Vatican’s top religious portfolio. In times of economic despair and political instability in the country that prides itself as the only Catholic country in Asia, we need this kind of positive report to boost our morale and satisfy our ego as a nation.
However, we must not over exaggerate Cardinal Tagle’s chances. We must stick to reality and refrain from stretching our freedom to exaggerate. To know when to reverse the telescope is like painting a great picture.
Even before Pope Benedict announced he was quitting, the names of Cardinal Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson of Ghana, Cardinal Marc Ouellet of Canada, and Cardinal Francis Arinze of Nigeria were already being dangled.

COUNCIL

Born in 1948 and is currently the president of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Turkson was elevated to the cardinalate by Pope John Paul II in 2003 and was appointed president of the Ponitifical Council for Justice and Peace in 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI.
Quebec’s Marc Ouellet was born in 1944 and is the present prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and concurrently president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America since his appointment by Pope Benedict XVI on 30 June 2010. He was elevated to the cardinalate, by Pope John Paul II, on 21 October 2003.
Born in 1932 in Nigeria, Francis Arinze is the current Cardinal Bishop of Velletri-Segni, succeeding Joseph Ratzinger, who became Pope Benedict XVI. Arinze was one of the principal advisors to Pope John Paul II.

CHANCES

Of course we will not underestimate the chances of Cardinal Tagle. The US-based Catholic News Service (CNS) recently endorsed the Filipino cardinal in a newly posted glowing profile.
“His youthful energy, his pastoral experience, his theological training and his communications skills impressed cardinals and bishops from around the world even before Pope Benedict XVI inducted him into the College of Cardinals last November,” trumpeted the CNS. Alex P. Vidal

 
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Posted by on February 27, 2013 in Uncategorized

 

Iloilo’s ‘wonder’ is it’s the Athens of the Philippines

Panay-03

By Alex P. Vidal

“Even before the New7Wonder of Cities of the world was coined, Iloilo City already holds the distinction as the premier educational mecca in the Philippines if not in Southeast Asia with seven highly regarded universities — University of the Philippines-Visayas, Central Philippine University, University of San Agustin, West Visayas State University, St. Paul University, John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University and University of Iloilo–and 28 colleges.”

As online user, I will vote for Iloilo City into the New7Wonders of Cities of the world not because of its impressive tourist spots, delicious seafoods and archaic infrastructures. Iloilo City deserves to be catapulted in the pedestal of great cities in the world because of its priceless tag and towering reputation as “the Athens of the Philippines.”
Athens was where the most famous ancient Greek philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle lived. It was the center of ancient education, of knowledge and wisdom even during the time of Pericles, Greece’s famous orator and influential leader during the Golden Age.
Even before the New7Wonder of Cities of the world was coined, Iloilo City already holds the distinction as the premier educational mecca in the Philippines if not in Southeast Asia with seven highly regarded universities — University of the Philippines-Visayas, Central Philippine University, University of San Agustin, West Visayas State University, St. Paul University, John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University and University of Iloilo–and 28 colleges.

PRODUCE

These learning institutions have produced some of the country’s greatest statesmen and pillars of public service; economic, cultural, music and sports jewels. Foreign students also flock to Iloilo City to learn in English, chemistry, accounting, science, agriculture, engineering, among other areas of education.
Aside from its rich historical sites, the city’s also the most efficient banking system and booming investment climate. Iloilo City is perhaps the only metropolitan in the country with commercial banks standing in every corner in downtown area. It is the only city in the country surrounded by a clean river and and a sea that connects to the Pacific Ocean. It has one of the best wharf and commercial ports in Asia tailor-made for ideal economic activity.
In my opinion, for the city to be known and honored as the best learning destination in this part of the world is better than to be praised for its physical beauty and potential as tourism and economic hubs.

WEBSITE

Meanwhile, a city hall press release recently quoted Bernard Weber, founder and president of New 7 Wonders on its website http://www.n7w.com, as saying that the new campaign “will become a catalyst for discussing everything from urban planning to metropolitan governance, from tourism to architecture amid mass urbanization worldwide.”
It added: “Ilonggo netizens, friends, fans and followers can know more about Iloilo City on its official website http://www.iloilocity.gov.ph, Facebook pages Iloilo City Government and Iloilo City for New7Wonders Cities, mayor’s official fan page, and Twitter account iloilocitygov.”
“The shortlist of 28 official finalist candidates will be known Sept. 7 – Sept. 21. The finalist phases of Top 21, then Top 14 and down to final Top 7 are set Sept. 21– July 7, 2014.
“The official New7Wonders Cities voted by hundreds of millions of people from around the world will be announced July 7, 2014.
“The New7Wonders Cities is the third campaign organized by N7W, following the man-made new wonders of the world and the new wonders of nature where the Puerto Princesa Underground River (PPUR) won.”

 
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Posted by on February 26, 2013 in Uncategorized

 

Freedom from Death

“Being prepared to die is one of the great secrets of living.” GEORGE LINCOLN ROCKWELL 

BY ALEX P. VIDAL

WHILE waiting for my Amtrak train ride to Los Angeles, California early in the morning sometime in November 2011, I came across a very interesting biography about a little-known financial advisor based in the City of Irvine, where the train terminal was located.
Ross Anderson was a financial professional at Signature Resources Capital Management, LLC, a $93M dollar RIA based in Irvine, CA. Ross was also registered with Signator Investors, Inc., a broker-dealer with over 1,500 registered representatives nationwide.
When Anderson, 78, died on October 6, 2011, his obituary was simple: “Ross graduated from Ellendale High School and served in the U.S. Navy from 1951-55. He was employed by the Northern Pacific Railroad; later Burlington Northern until his retirement at age 55. He was an avid fisherman and deer hunter, and loved tinkering in his garage and gardening.”
This “avid fisherman” and “deer hunter” turned out to be one of the greatest authors in recent memory. In one of his books, Personal Freedom, he emphasized that “the greatest happiness and fulfillment in life can come through your personal independence and freedom.”

MARCH

Each of us is marching inexorably toward death. We were born, we are living and we must die, Anderson suggested.
We may feel uncomfortable talking about our demise, or passing, but it will occur nevertheless.
Here’s what he wrote about Freedom from death: “It has never ceased to amaze me how people take life so seriously. You can see situations many times each day where there is anxiety or conflict and its origin is often in placing so much importance on the moment.
“To get some perspective on how important our moments are you can walk down into the Grand Canyon, and you can see the strata which have formed over millions of years. I’ve done that a few times and also viewed exposed strata in many other places just as I’m sure you have.
“It is impossible to see this and not realize that time, an invention of humans, has no relation to the enormous passage of existence represented in the layers and layers of life we can see in a geologic strata. And those millions of years have no meaning at all in relation to the universe where there is no passage of time at all. Even billions of our years are nothing to the universe.

ENGROSSED

“If that’s the case how can we possibly become engrossed in any passing situation in life to the degree it harms us? How can we alter our happiness because of a disappointment when we can see that, in the all-and-all of things the disappointment means nothing at all.
“Think of all the arguments, the wars, the battles, the business deals, the trauma, the conflict and the unhappiness which has transpired over the countless years we see represented in our old world, and no one cares.
“It is obvious that we have learned nothing from the wars. The arguments between individuals or nations mean nothing to us now. The individual problems of all people have no significance, but it is certain that they all took these events seriously at the time.
“And, we;re taking them seriously now. We are not here for long, and the simple fact is that life is too short for unhappiness. It is too short for constant worry about finances. Conflicts between friends, mates, neighbors or anyone else are simply such an ignorant waste of time that they can’t be considered.
“Life is long enough for living, for loving, for helping, for building, for travel and for happiness but it isn’t long enough to be taken so seriously, moment-by-moment, leading us to unhappiness.

SERIOUSLY

“A philosopher once said, ‘If you’re thinking of killing yourself, you’re taking life seriously. Life is just long enough for one good laugh.’ That’s the truth, too.
“If life is so temporary how can we possibly be bogged down in problems and troubles which mean nothing to anyone else and will mean nothing to us when we are gone? What’s the point of it? But we can see that nearly everyone takes every situation, every day, as if that moment was going to last forever. We can see people build enormous wealth as if they are building a business or estate which will last long as the planets.
“I believe in building a business and I believe in making money. I don’t however take it so seriously, that I ever think it is the most important thing in life nor do I dream of it having any lasting effect on the world. Something as great as the United States, as a country, will be gone and fade away and, a thousand or a million years from now, won’t even be remembered. If that’s the case then there is no doubt about how significant our problems are.
“When you are confronted with people who are taking the moment too seriously, who want to oppress you, who think they are getting to you, who are looking at the moment instead of millions of years, just overlook the conflict, resolve the problem if you can, and then forget it.

OUTLOOK

“I’ve been able to cultivate this outlook for several years now and it certainly is an enjoyable way to live. It is also the feeling which can remove the larceny from a person’s heart. “There is no room for dishonesty in life since it is so temporary and there is no point in being dishonest. Any gains from dishonesty are meaningless in the millions of years we are looking at.
“There is no reason to fear death. Whatever death involves it is inevitable.
“It is a great comfort to many people to think of the harps and grapes waiting for them on the other side. Some people are waiting for nirvana, a state of peace. Others are looking forward to a new world where they will live and move about. “Others believe that their death is a sleep from which they will never awake. Some young people think of heaven as listening to rock music forever. Some old people think of hell as listening to rock music forever.

CHEMICALS

“When people are buried all that is in the casket are some chemicals. If they are cremated their chemicals are reduced to a smaller container, and those people are no longer living. As they used to move around, to talk, to laugh and to love, they do it no longer.
“There is some melancholy in this but not sadness. Melancholy since we do miss friends when they are gone, whether they move away or die. There is no sadness since their death is just like your death and my death. It’s just something that happens.
“If you can cultivate a perception of death as just something else that happens, as something to do, then it takes on a whole different meaning in your life–no meaning at all!”

 
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Posted by on February 22, 2013 in Uncategorized

 

DIVORCE IN PHILIPPINES AND SCIENCE OF LIVING TOGETHER

“Divorce is the one human tragedy that reduces everything to cash.”RITA MAE BROWN

By ALEX P. VIDAL

The next congress will introduce the divorce bill in the Philippines after the elections in May this year. At least this was the assurance made by House Speaker Feliciano Belmonte most recently.
The proposed measure is expected to again raise the blood pressure of Roman Catholic bishops still clearing the cobwebs in a landmark Reproductive Health (RH) bill setback.
The bill would be about relationship between husband and wife, about companionship in a marital household, about living together permanently under one roof and whether to maintain the roof or abandon it. Scientific studies have rather consistently demonstrated that companionship contributes to good health.
The quality of relationships also is a factor, according to Xinhua Steve Ren, Ph.D., assistant professor at the Boston University School of Public Health and research health scientist with the Center for Health Quality, Outcome, and Economic Research of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Bedford, Massachusetts.

FINDINGS

Here are some of Ren’s other findings secured by editors of Men’s Health:
— Separation and divorce can actually improve health–but only in cases where there were serious ongoing marital problems. Separation and divorce are most detrimental to health when the marriage had no prior serious problems and the crisis arose with the sudden discovery of infidelity.
— Being separated is more injurious to health than divorce. The separated were more than two times as likely to consider themselves in poor health than were married folks, while divorced people were about 1.3 times more likely to think themselves in ill health.
— The quality of a relationship–whether marriage or cohabitation–affects the participants’ health. Those in unhappy relationships are at higher health risk than those who are in happy relationships and, surprisingly, even than those who are divorced.
— Compared to married people, the unmarried tend to have higher death rates from all causes, have higher levels of stress, and use more health services.

 
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Posted by on February 22, 2013 in Uncategorized

 

Martyr: Wracked with self pity

“He that despairs degrades God.” OWEN FELTHAM

By Alex P. Vidal

If we are in a high-maintenance relationship, this subject matter may interest us. Dealing with martyrs was recently cited in the survey as the second most difficult relationship.
“We all have days when we feel a bit like a martyr, days when self-pity descends on us,” wrote psychology professor, Dr. Les Parrot III of the Center for Relationship Development at Seattle Pacific University. “For most people, self-pity is fleeting, a reminder that life isn’t always fair.”
Parrot explained in his book, High-Maintenance Relationship, that for most people self-pity can be like an infection. If it’s not caught early and treated aggressively, he said, “it can become chronic, leading to people to feel continually like victims.”
Such is the case for martyrs, Parrot revealed. They can be knocked over by the tiniest difficulties–a burned dinner, a lonely weekend, a traffic jam–and show little interest in getting up. Like flowers flattened by a strong wind, martyrs stay down.

UNFAIRNESS

“Hopelessly and helplessly they give in to real and imagined unfairness and refuse the helping hand of a friend: ‘Oh, don’t worry about me. I’m fine,’ or ‘You don’t have time for my troubles. You just go ahead.’ Martyrs feel spurned by the world. They often refuse help and are burned at their own stake,” added the fellow in medical psychology at the University of Washington School of Medicine.
According to Parrot, “it doesn’t take much to become a Joan of Arc. Mothers can overburden themselves with household chores, then say, ‘No one really cares about me. As far as my family is concerned, I’m just a slave.'” Fathers can use the same approach: “I work my fingers to the bone, and no one cares. Everyone uses me.”
The ordained minister of the Church of the Nazarene cited the case of Vicky as a typical martyr. With her soft-spoken manner you barely notice she is in the room. She suffers from excruciating back pain, and at times she barely sit up for more than five minutes at a stretch. But she refuses a friend’s offer to clean her apartment and cook dinner. “I’ve got to manage alone,” Vicky says, “because I can’t expect someone else to be here every minute of every day.”

PERSECUTED

Vicky refuses help but feels all the more persecuted when her friends don’t stop by. Like every other martyr, explained Parrot, Vicky wallows in self-pity. It has become so insidious to her soul that she is all but entrapped. Her friends fear she will never emerge to live a fun, contented life. And her woeful existence is becoming increasingly exhausting for even her family members and most dedicated companions.
“If you have martyrs in your life, you have seen firsthand how their wallowing can go on and on. Solutions to their problems, no matter how powerful, can’t seem to penetrate their complaining,” Parrot stressed. “Martyrs are locked tight in a victim chambers. But that doesn’t mean you need to suffer too. You can use several effective strategies for living and working with confirmed martyrs, even when they refuse to be rescued.”
Unfortunately, martyrs are all too prevalent in our society, warned Parrot. “Turn on any morning or afternoon talk show, and you will see people who are stuck in a bad marriage or who are too fat or too miserable to deal with life. You will also hear them blame their parents, their schooling, their income, their siblings, their friends, their church, their government, and, of course, themselves. What dynamics do martyrs have in common? They are defeated, passive, self-blaming, helpless, irrational, broody, and worrisome.”

DEFEATED. “Everyone whines a little in response to life’s small irritations: you have na acne outbreak at the worst time; you lose your keys; you get stood up for an appointment,” continued Parrot. “Who wouldn’t feel a little defeated? But most of us are able to stop feeling negative, recover our equilibrium, and get on with living. Not so for martyrs. They give up quickly and suffer long-lasting defeat.”

PASSIVE. If one were to coin a battle cry for martyrs, the author said, it would be “I can’t!” I can’t lose weight. I can’t get a promotion. I can’t change. I can’t meet new friends. Martyrs make little effort to rally against downbeat thoughts, Parrot observed. “And rarely do they ask for or accept help, even–or especially–when that help is freely and lovingly offered. Martyrs may desperately need help, but they will rebuff a gesture of caring.”

SELF-BLAMING. In his book, When Bad Things Happen to Good People, Rabbi Harold Kushner tells of paying condolence calls on the families of two women who died of natural causes. At the first home, the son of the deceased woman told the rabbi: “If only I had sent my mother to Florida and gotten her out of this cold, she would be alive today. It’s my fault she died.” At the second home, the son told the rabbi: “If only i hadn’t insisted on my mother’s going to Florida, she would be alive today. it’s my fault that she’s dead.” Martyrs, like these sons, are often addicted to self-blame, according to Parrot.

 
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Posted by on February 22, 2013 in EDUCATION, HEALTH, PSYCHOLOGY

 

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Sex and Super Sex–The Human Zoo

“One of the bizarre satisfactions of rape for the sadist is that the writhings and facial expressions of pain he produces in the female are somewhat similar to the writhings and facial expressions of a female experiencing an intense orgasm.”

By Alex P. Vidal 

WHEN we put a piece of food into our mouth it does not necessarily mean that we are hungry. When we take a drink it does not inevitably indicate that we are thirsty.
In the Human Zoo, wrote English zoologist Desmond Morris, eating and drinking have come to serve many functions. We may be nibbling peanuts to kill time, or we may be sucking sweets to soothe our nerves.
Like a wine-taster, we may merely savor the flavor and then spit the liquid out, or we may down 10 pins of beer to win a wager. Under certain circumstances, we may be prepared to swallow a sheep’s eyeball in order to maintain our Facebook status.
“In one of these cases is the nourishment of the body the true value of the activity,” wrote Morris. “This multi-functional utilization of basic behavior pattern is not unknown in the world of animals, but, in the human zoo, man’s ingenious opportunism extends and intensifies the process.”
Let’s examine the different functions of sexual behavior one by one. Morris reminds us that “it is important to realize at the onset that, although these functions are separate and distinct, and sometimes clash with one another, they are not all mutually exclusive. Any particular act of courtship or copulation may serve several functions simultaneously.”
These are the 10 sexual functional categories, according to Morris:
1. PROCREATION SEX. There can be argument that this is the most basic function of sexual behavior. It has sometimes been mistakenly argues that it is the only natural and therefore proper role. Paradoxically, some of the religious groups that claim this do not practice what this preach, monks, nuns and many priests denying themselves the very activity which they hold to be so uniquely natural.

2. PAIR-FORMATION SEX. The human animal is basically and biologically a pair-forming species. As the emotional relationship develops between a pair of potential mates it is aided and abetted by the sexual activities they share. The pair-formation function of sexual behavior is so important for our species that nowhere outside the pairing phase do sexual activities regularly reach such a high intensity.

3. PAIR-MAINTENANCE SEX. Once a pair-bond has been successfully formed, sexual activities still function to maintain and reinforce the bond. Although these activities may become more elaborate and extensive, they usually become less intensive than those of the pair-forming stage, because the pair-forming function is no longer operating.

4. PHYSIOLOGICAL SEX. In the healthy adult human male and female there is a basic physiological requirement for repeated sexual consummation. Without such consummation, a physiological tension builds up and eventually the body demands relief. Any sexual act that involves an orgasm provides the orgasmic individual with this relief. Even if copulation fails to fulfill any of the other nine functions of sexual behavior, it can at least satisfy this basic physiological need.

5. EXPLORATORY SEX. One of man’s greatest qualities is his inventiveness. In all probability our monkey ancestors were already endowed with a reasonably high level of curiosity; it is a characteristic of the whole primate group. However, when our early human ancestors took to hunting, they undoubtedly had to develop and strengthen this quality and magnify their basic urge to explore all the details of their environment.

6. SELF-REWARDING SEX. It is impossible to draw up a complete list of the functions of sex without including a category based on the idea that there is a thing as ‘sex for sex’s sake’; sexual behavior, the performance of which brings its own reward, regardless of any other consideration. The function is closely related to the last one, but they are nevertheless distinct.

7. OCCUPATIONAL SEX. This is sex operating as occupational therapy, or, if you prefer, as an anti-boredom device. It is closely related to the last category, but again can be clearly distinguished from it. There is difference between having spare time and being bored. Self-rewarding sex can occur as just one of many ways of constructively utilizing the spare time available.

8. TRANQUILIZING SEX. Just as the nervous system cannot tolerate gross inactivity, so it rebels against the strains of excessive over-activity. Tranquilizing sex is the other side of the coin from occupational sex. Instead of being anti-boredom, it is anti-turmoil. When faced with an overdose of strange, conflicting, unfamiliar or frightening stimuli, the individual seeks escape in the performance of friendly old familiar patterns that serve to calm his shattered nerves.

9. COMMERCIAL SEX. Prostitution has already been mentioned, but only from the point of view of the customer. For the prostitute herself the function of copulation is different. Subsidiary factors may be operating, but primarily and overwhelmingly it is straightforward and commercial transaction. Commercial sex of a kind also figures as an important function in many marriage situations, where one-sided pair-bond exists: one partner simply provides a copulatory service for the other in exchange for money and shelter. The provider who has developed a true pair-bond has to accept a mock one in return.

10. STATUS SEX. With this, the final functional category of sexual behavior, we enter a strange world, full of unexpected developments and ramifications. Status sex infiltrates and pervades our lives in many hidden and unrecognized ways. It is concerned with dominance, not with reproduction, and to understand how this link is forged we must consider the differing roles of the sexual female and the sexual male. Although a full expression of sexuality involves the active participation of both sexes, it is nevertheless true to say that, for the mammalian female, the sexual role is essentially a submissive one, and for the male it is essentially an aggressive one.

 
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Posted by on February 22, 2013 in EDUCATION, HEALTH, PSYCHOLOGY

 

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‘We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble’

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By Alex P. Vidal

William James was one of the two famous American pragmatists along with C.S. Peirce, who promoted pragmatism that says, “knowledge is a guide for action, not a search for abstract truth.”
James’ philosophy is simple: to fully understand something we must understand all its consequences; true beliefs will lead to positive consequences.
But it is not about James’ philosophy and pragmatism per se why his name is mentioned here today. It’s about his comments on emotion published in An Insight Book by Van Nostrand in 1962 that I would like to share.
Although James wrote with clarity and depth on a large number of topics of psychological interest, his comments on emotion resulted in a theory of emotion which bears his name.
The following selection idea is taken from James’ chapter on emotion in Principles of Pyschology (Vol. II, New York: Holt and Company, 1890). The selection is taken from the middle of the chapter. Prior to the place where this selection begins, James has discussed the work of the Danish psychologist, Carl Lange.

DIFFERENCES

Although there are differences between James’ theory and that of Lange, the general theory that emotion is the product of physiological changes, rather than the reverse, is commonly called the James-Lange theory, according to the Van Nostrand Insight Book edited by Douglas K. Candland.
“Our natural way of thinking about these coarser emotions is that the mental perception of some fact excites the mental affection called the emotion and that this latter state of mind gives rise to the bodily expression,” James clarified his viewpoint in a paper which appeared in Psychol. Rev., 1894,1, 516-529.
“My theory, on the contrary, is that the bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact, and that our feeling of the same changes as they occur is the emotion. Common sense says, we lose our fortune, are sorry and weep; we meet a bear, are frightened and run; we are insulted by a rival, are angry and strike.
“The hypothesis here to be defended says that this order of sequence in incorrect, that the one mental state is not immediately induced by the other, that the bodily manifestations must first be interposed between, and that the more rational statement is that we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble, and not that we cry, strike, or tremble, because we are sorry, angry, or fearful, as the case may be.”

COGNITIVE

James added: “Without the bodily states following on the perception, the latter would be purely cognitive in form, pale, colorless, destitute of emotional warmth. We might then see the bear, and judge it best to run, receive the insult and deem it right to strike, but we should not actually feel afraid or angry.”
The James–Lange theory refers to a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions and is one of the earliest theories of emotion within modern psychology. The basic premise of the theory is that physiological arousal instigates the experience of a specific emotion. Instead of feeling an emotion and subsequent physiological (bodily) response, the theory proposes that the physiological change is primary, and emotion is then experienced when the brain reacts to the information received via the body’s nervous system.
The theory has been criticized and modified over the course of time, as one of several competing theories. In 2002 a research paper on the autonomous nervous system stated that the theory has been “hard to disprove.”
The theory states that all emotion is derived from the presence of a stimulus, which evokes a physiological response, such as muscular tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and dryness of mouth. This physical arousal makes a person feel a specific emotion.

SECONDARY

Emotion is a secondary feeling, indirectly caused by the primary feeling, which is the physiological response caused by the presence of a stimulus, according to the theory. The specific pathway involved in the experience of emotion was also described by James. He stated that an object has an effect on a sense organ, which relays the information it is receiving to the cortex. The brain then sends this information to the muscles and viscera, which causes them to respond. Finally, impulses from the muscles and viscera are sent back to the cortex, transforming the object from an “object-simply apprehended” to an “object-emotionally felt.”
James explained that his theory went against common sense. For example, while most would think the order of emotional experience would be that a person sees a bear, becomes afraid, and runs away, James thought that first the person has a physiological response to the bear, such as trembling, and then becomes afraid and runs. James said, the physiological response comes first, and it is followed by an emotion and a reaction. James believed that these responses were “reflex type” reactions which are built in: “Instinctive reactions and emotional expressions shade imperceptibly into each other. Every object that excites an instinct excites an emotion as well.”

 
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Posted by on February 22, 2013 in Uncategorized